17th July 2019by Fiona Peake
In this article
What is asbestos?
Why was asbestos so popular?
Why asbestos is harmful to health
The UK 1985 asbestos ban
How does asbestos spread?
Who can asbestos affect?
What are the symptoms of asbestos related diseases?
What should you do if exposed to asbestos?
The take home message about asbestos
For many who aren’t in the know, asbestos may seem like a thing of the past. However, despite the mineral being around for decades, asbestos is not only still present in many homes across the UK, but it’s something that can still cause health complications – particularly if you’re unaware of what it is, what it looks like and what it can do. To help you become aware of asbestos and its effects, today we are proving an in-depth guide into what asbestos is, how it can affect your health and what you should do if you are exposed to asbestos. This guide explains how exposure can lead to asbestosis as well as other illnesses. What is asbestos? Asbestos has a long and complex history – but what is it? A naturally occurring mineral, asbestos found its way into thousands of homes across the UK in the 1930’s and continued to be used for many years until 1985 when it was banned in the UK. According to the British Lung Foundation, asbestos is a term used ‘for a group of minerals made of microscopic fibres’ that can damage the lungs if breathed in. This umbrella term used to describe a collection of six minerals that can be broken down into their individual scientific names:
Chrysotile – white asbestos
Amosite– brown asbestos
Crocidolite– blue asbestos
Anthophyllite– found as a contaminant within chrysotile asbestos
Actinolite– found as a contaminant within chrysotile asbestos
Tremolite– found as a contaminant within chrysotile asbestos
Why was asbestos so popular? When being used, asbestos was a very popular application in insulation, piping, ceilings, roof shingles and many more. But why was asbestos so sought after? Despite its harmful potential, asbestos also offers some pretty beneficial properties that made it a cheap and reliable solution in building and construction:
Low thermal conductivity
Resistant to chemical attack
Pure asbestos can also be made into vital materials such as paper, cloth and rope – thus it is much more common than you may initially think and could be found in many of our everyday items. It is important to note that although this was certainly the case back when asbestos was used on a huge scale, it is not so likely that you’ll find asbestos in regular everyday items now. Asbestos was a very popular building material due to it being fire proof and extremely versatile.
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Why asbestos is harmful to health Unfortunately, back when asbestos was so popular there was very little knowledge about the potential risks of the mineral. It took many years of use before people realised the risks – and many deaths occurred as a result of asbestos exposure. But what makes something so seemingly useful, so dangerous? Ironically, the same properties that made asbestos such a highly praised building material, are the same properties which make it so harmful. One of the key reasons asbestos is so harmful is due to the way the mineral fibres split. This happens lengthways, making the fibres more accessible to the furthest part of the lungs, therefore making it very easy to inhale, and impossible to remove from our system once breathed in. It was because of these effects that asbestos was banned in the UK in 1985. However, despite being banned on multiple occasions in the past, the U.S. and other countries do still use asbestos in certain materials.
The UK 1985 asbestos ban In today’s modern world, asbestos is widely considered to be a “hidden killer”. This was not always the case and it took a number of years of exposure for people to understand the harmful effects of the mineral. Because asbestos can be present without any signs or initial symptoms at all it can wreak havoc on workers and residents without warning. It wasn’t until 1985 that crocidolite and amosite asbestos was banned here in the UK construction industry. Later in 1999 asbestos was fully banned to prevent fatalities due to the toxicity of the fibres. Asbestos was fully banned in the UK in 1999. Hugely popular amongst the construction industries, asbestos offered a cheap building material that proved useful in many applications, and so typically the first to become affected by asbestos were those working on construction sites and in building operations. With more of the same groups of people becoming ill and even dying, asbestos slowly became a point of concern. This was not reflected in its use, as it continued to grow in popularity across the 20’s and 30’s. The first case of asbestosis was diagnosed in 1924, which led to an official awareness of the dangers of asbestos. However, use of the material continued to grow until eventually, its use led to the first asbestos industry regulations being passed in 1931. Despite regulations, shockingly, by the year 2000, there has been over 4500 asbestos related deaths in the UK alone. Due to this, the release of asbestos fibres into the air in a quantity to damage health is now reportable under RIDDOR. How does asbestos spread? You may be wondering how something that was used for so many years could still effect people in todays society? Well, the answer is quite simple, and highlights the importance of awareness for those who may not know much about asbestos already. Asbestos is spread when disrupted and is then incredibly easy to be inhaled. Much like any dusty material, when touched or moved it gives off fibres, and in the case of asbestos, these fibres can prove incredibly harmful. When removing asbestos, specialist companies take a huge number of precautions including full face masks, body suits and enclosures for different areas so that fibres cannot spread.
Who can asbestos affect?
Although asbestos first presented itself mostly in those who had spent time working with the mineral in construction, asbestos related health issues have affected a range of people – including residents of homes built using asbestos. The most commonly affected people include the following:
Asbestos miners and factory workers
Asbestos removal workers
Vehicle maintenance and repair of older vehicles, aircraft and other modes of transport
Workers in construction, demolition and refurbishment
Tradesman such as builders, joiners, carpenters, plumbers, plasterers and electricians
Once inhaled, asbestos cannot be removed from the lungs.
What are the symptoms of asbestos related diseases?
There are a range of harmful diseases associated with asbestos poisoning. These include the following:
Asbestosis– widespread scarring of the lungs
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – a common complication of asbestosis
Lung cancer– asbestos can affect the outer lining of the lungs or the internal portions)
Mesothelioma– Aggressive cancer directly related to asbestos, this usually affects the lining of the lungs
Other asbestos related cancers– such as ovarian cancer and laryngeal cancer
Non-malignant pleural disease – such as diffuse pleural thickening, pleural plaques and pleural effusions
Asbestosis The symptoms associated with asbestosis typically include the following:
Shortness of breath
A persistent dry cough
Blood in the sputum
Because asbestosis takes such a long time to take hold, many people can live symptom free for anywhere between 20 and 30 years! It is for this reason that most people who die from asbestosis are in there 60’s and 70’s or even older. Whilst symptoms may not start for a number of years, when they do finally begin to present, they tend to start off mild and increase in severity over time. This is because asbestosis is a progressive condition and one that lasts a lifetime.
COPD The symptoms associated with COPD typically include the following:
Low immunity –